Chapter 05

For each term below, first note how you would define the term. Then, click on the arrow to reveal the book’s definition.

Behavioral reactance

The phenomenon whereby people respond in a direction opposite to the direction being advocated.

Companionship support

A reflection of the availability of people with whom one can exercise, such as friends, family members, or a group.

Confidence interval

The estimated range of values within which the true value of an effect size is expected to lie.

Effect size

An estimate of the magnitude of an effect.

Emotional support

The expression of encouragement, caring, empathy, and concern toward a person.

Group cohesion

The tendency of a group to stick together and remain united in pursuit of its objectives.

Informational support

Giving directions, advice, or suggestions about how to exercise and providing feedback regarding the exerciser’s progress.

Instrumental support

Providing tangible, practical assistance that will help a person achieve exercise goals.


A quantitative review and synthesis of research studies.

Moderating factor

A variable that could influence the strength of an intervention or the relationship between two other variables.

Social control

Measures and actions taken by a group to enforce compliance with traditions, perceptions, or rules.

Social facilitation

The phenomenon in which people increase their effort and performance when others are watching them.

Social influence

Real or imagined pressure to change one’s behavior, attitudes, or beliefs. 

Social support

The degree of perceived comfort, caring, assistance, and information that a person receives from others.

Transformational leadership

A leadership style that seeks to cultivate positive changes in the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of those who are being led, empowering, inspiring, and challenging them to achieve higher levels of functioning.


Comparing oneself to others in order to gauge progress and to confirm that one’s thoughts, feelings, problems, and experiences are “normal.”