Chapter 06

For each term below, first note how you would define the term. Then, click on the arrow to reveal the book’s definition.

Abstinence violation effect

In behavior change, when a single lapse in behavior causes an individual to give up trying to change a behavior, resulting in a full relapse.

Action planning

Forming concrete plans that specify when, where, and how a person will translate his or her behavioral (e.g., exercise) intentions into action.

Activity log

A self-report measure in which activities are written in notebooks or recorded with a variety of electronic media.

Behavioral approaches

Approaches to physical activity intervention in which one teaches the behavioral management skills necessary for both successful adoption and maintenance of behavior changes.

Behavioral coping strategies

Strategies that involve the development and implementation of overt plans to manage high-risk situations.

Change talk

Statements regarding one’s desires, abilities, and reasons for change.

Cognitive Coping Strategies

The use of nonobservable thought processes—such as self-talk and visualization— to overcome disruptive thoughts and feelings.

Cognitive restructuring

The process of changing how one thinks about a situation or event.

Community-wide campaign

Physical activity interventions that engage different community members and organizations in the development and delivery of information aimed at increasing physical activity.

Cultural tailoring

Adapting or targeting informational interventions to specific cultural groups.

Empathy

The ability to identify with another person and understand his or her feelings.

Environmental and policy approaches

Approaches to physical activity interventions in which one changes the structure of physical and organizational environments to provide safe, attractive, and convenient places for physical activity.

Fitness appraisal

A physical activity intervention designed to provide people with personalized information about their level of fitness.

Goal-setting

The behavioral process whereby a person develops specific strategies that enhance motivation to achieve an objective.

Goal-setting worksheet

A place for exercisers to make a detailed plan for achieving success and to record daily progress notes.

Health risk appraisal

Opportunities provided within the community for people to be screened, without cost, for diseases such as diabetes or cardiovascular disease.

Implementation intention

The intention to engage in a behavior, developed by creating a strong mental association between a situational cue and a specific behavior.

Informal approach

An approach to physical activity interventions in which one tries to change knowledge and attitudes about the benefits of and opportunities for physical activity.

Lapse

A brief period of inactivity (e.g., a session, a week) that precedes resumption of the regular exercise regimen.

Mass media campaign

A physical activity intervention that reaches people through some medium other than personal contact with a health professional or provider; a means for reaching large numbers of people that is less expensive than face-to-face services.

Motivational interviewing

A counseling technique that provides people with the opportunity to talk about and resolve their mixed feelings so that they can move forward with change.

Point-of-decision prompt

A physical activity intervention that involves placing motivational cues at points where people must choose between physically active and inactive options, e.g., taking the elevator versus walking up the stairs; such messages are effective because they remind people that they are about to have an opportunity to engage in a physical activity.

Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale

A scale used by an individual to rate the intensity of the physical activity in which he or she is engaging.

RE-AIM

A framework (Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) to guide the evaluation of physical activity and other health interventions in the real world.

Self-monitoring

Paying attention to one’s own thoughts, feelings, and behaviors and gauging them against a standard.

Self-reinforcement

A reinforcement technique in which individuals grant themselves personally meaningful rewards for progressing toward and achieving their goals.

Self-talk

The statements people make to themselves; these can be used to increase confidence, regulate arousal, and focus effort in order to overcome high-risk situations.

Social approaches

An approach to physical activity interventions involving the creation of social environments that facilitate and enhance behavior change. 

Visualization

Seeing and feeling an object or experience in one’s mind.