Chapter 11

For each term below, first note how you would define the term. Then, click on the arrow to reveal the book’s definition.

Anthropological hypothesis

An explanation for the link between physical activity and depression based on evolutionary theory.

Bipolar disorder

A mood disorder characterized by one or more episodes of mania or mixed episodes of mania and depression.


A mood disorder characterized by manic and depressive states of insufficient intensity or duration for diagnosis as bipolar or major depressive disorder.

Depressive disorder

A mental illness characterized by one or more of the following: sustained feelings of sadness, feelings of guilt or worthlessness, disturbances in appetite, disturbances in sleep patterns, lack of energy, difficulty concentrating, loss of interest in all or most activities, problems with memory, thoughts of suicide, hallucinations.

Disability adjusted life years (DALYs)

A measure of a person’s disease burden that estimates the years of healthy life lost due to premature death and years lived with a disability of specified severity and duration.


Chronic form of depression.

Endorphin hypothesis

An explanation for the anxiety and depression-reducing effects of exercise based on the body’s production of endorphins during exercise.

Mastery hypothesis

A hypothesis that explains the effect of exercise on depression and anxiety by positing that these effects are derived from the sense of accomplishment or mastery felt upon completion of a task.

Moderating factor

A variable that could influence the strength of an intervention or the relationship between two other variables.

Monoamine hypothesis

An explanation for the effect of exercise on depression that is based on the alteration of brain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine.


Cell proliferation and differentiation.


A severe, chronic psychiatric illness. Signs and symptoms of schizophrenia include positive symptoms (e.g., hallucinations, delusions, thought disorders); negative symptoms, (e.g., flat affect, decreased energy/anergia); and cognitive symptoms (deficits in information processing, difficulty focusing thoughts).

Social interaction hypothesis

A hypothesis proposing that exercise reduces depression because it provides an opportunity for the individual to interact with others.