web analytics

Holcomb Hathaway, Publishers

Chapter 2 Definitions

Abstract: A brief summary of the main elements of a scientific article. Abstracts usually also include a purpose statement, description of the methods, results, and conclusions.
Conclusions: Relationships among the original purposes of a study that were specified in the introduction to the analysis and discussion of the findings.
Discussion: The use of inductive reasoning to interpret the findings of a study as well as a comparison of these findings with those of previous studies for the purpose of integration into a larger theoretical model.
External reviewers: Individuals who have academic background and training similar to the authors, and who rate and scrutinize a manuscript and recommend acceptance, rejection, or improvement for publication in a journal.
Hypotheses: A tentative proposal made to explain certain observations or facts that require further investigation to be verified.
Introduction: Section of an article or manuscript that specifically identifies the problem and often states the research hypotheses.
Keywords: Words from a manuscript or an article that identify the key concepts in a particular research question.
Meta-analysis: A technique of literature review that contains a definitive methodology and quantifies the results of various studies to a standard metric that allows the use of statistical techniques as a means of analysis.
Methods: This section describes the data-gathering steps of the scientific method in such detail that the study can be replicated.
Narrative review: A subjective summary and interpretation of research results from most, if not all, of the studies in a particular area.
Nonscientific literature: Anything published in a book, magazine, newspaper, or online that is not peerreviewed for scientific content.
Peer-review process: Subjecting an author’s scholarly work or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the field.
Primary references: Original data and/or ideas that are generally the first published record of an investigation. Examples include research articles, research monographs, preprints, patents, dissertations, and conference proceedings.
References: Sources used to support various statements in a manuscript or an article.
Results: The findings of a research study from the data analysis.
Scientific literature: Reports of original empirical and theoretical work (or summaries thereof) in the natural and social sciences.
Secondary references: Information about primary sources, usually a compilation or synthesis of various ideas and data. Secondary sources may rearrange, modify, or summarize data, which include book chapters, narrative reviews, and meta-analyses.
Theory: A comprehensive explanation of a given set of data that has been repeatedly confirmed by observation and experimentation and has gained general acceptance within the scientific community but has not yet been decisively proven.