Chapter 05

For each term below, first note how you would define the term. Then, click on the arrow to reveal the book’s definition.

Anticipation Guides

A prereading tool used to activate schemata and engage readers.


The online publication of commentary on specific topics of interest (e.g., political, social, and so forth).

Book Clubs

Another term for (see) literature circles.

Book Contract

An individual contract of literacy activities based upon a self-selected book.


The interpretation of print on a page into a meaningful message that is dependent on the reader’s decoding abilities, prior knowledge, cultural and social background, and monitoring strategies—the “essence of reading.”

Comprehension Monitoring

The reader’s awareness of whether what is being read makes sense and, when it does not, his or her ability to make adjustments to improve comprehension.

Critical Analysis

As a component of comprehension, the ability of readers to actively engage and to interpret text critically, uncovering intended meanings, discovering biases, and producing a cultural understanding of the text.

Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DRTA)

A time-honored format for guiding students as they read selections, usually from basal reading programs.

Double Entry Journal

This journal uses a two-column format for entries of two types of student response to text.

Dyad Reading

A paired reading activity in which students alternately read aloud or listen and summarize what their partner has read.

Goldilocks Strategy

Students examine a book to determine if it is “too easy,” “too hard,” or “just right” for them to read. 

Graphic Novels

Book-length comic books.

Guided Reading

A teacher-mediated instructional method designed to help readers improve skills, comprehension, recall, and appreciation of text.

Literature Circles

Small, student-led book discussion groups that meet regularly in the classroom to read and discuss self-selected books

Novel Study

The in-depth reading and interpretation of a novel or a group of related novels or stories.

Productive Questioning

Involves the use of students’ responses to carefully crafted questions in guiding the development of conceptual thinking.

Question-Answer Relationships (QAR)

A strategy in which students become aware of their own comprehension processes, particularly the importance of the knowledge they bring to text and their role as active seekers rather than passive receivers of information through reading.

Reciprocal Teaching

A technique to develop comprehension and metacognition in which the teacher and students take turns predicting, generating questions, summarizing, and clarifying ideas in a passage.


A preexisting knowledge structure developed about a thing, a place, or an idea; a framework of expectations based on previous knowledge.

Self-Regulated Learning

A learning process that requires awareness and application of learning strategies and extensive reflection and self-awareness; students who are self-regulated understand their strengths and weaknesses as learner. Closely related to comprehension monitoring.

Strategic Reader Model

A view of reading instruction that focuses on teaching readers a wide variety of strategies to use before, during, and after reading.


A two-column list used to compare the information in the column heads.


A strategy in which the teacher models aloud for students the thinking processes used when reading or writing.