Chapter 09

For each term below, first note how you would define the term. Then, click on the arrow to reveal the book’s definition.


Progress through the curriculum at a faster rate.

Asperger’s Syndrome

A mild form of autism.

Assistive Technologies

Electronic devices, equipment, or products designed or modified specifically to improve the functional capabilities of individuals with severe communication disorders and other disabilities.

Augmentative Communication System

Any system or device designed to enhance the communication abilities of individuals who are nonverbal or have speech too difficult to understand.


A disability characterized by extreme withdrawal and underdeveloped communication or language skills.

Behavioral Disorder

A disability in which students are characterized by inappropriate school behavior.

Comprehensible Input

New information that is modified to enable an English learner to make connections to already known information.

Differentiated Instruction

Instruction designed to meet the needs of all students by adjusting content, process, or product.


Strategies designed to deepen appreciation for reading selections.

Four-by-Four Model

A “sheltered English” (see below) instructional model that addresses four developmental levels of language proficiency (beginning, early intermediate, intermediate, early advanced) and four literacy skills (reading, writing, speaking, listening) through the use of content themes.

Individualized Education Programs

A written educational plan specifying a special student’s annual goals, current levels of educational achievement, and short-term instructional objectives; prepared by a team that includes the student’s parents, teachers, and often the student.

Learning Disability

A condition in which a person with average or above intelligence is substantially delayed in academic achievement because of a processing disorder, not because of an environmental, an economic, or a cultural disadvantage.

Language Disorders

Communication disorders that involve poor speech or language performance due to various factors, including voice quality, speech fluency, and sound production.


Concrete pictures and other items used to show the meaning of words and concepts.

SIOP Model

SIOP (Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol) is a “sheltered English” instructional model that delineates both language and content lesson objectives linked to subject area and curriculum standards.

Speech Disorders

Disabilities characterized by deficits in speech, receptive language, and/or expressive language.

Think Sheet

A written format used to help students with behavioral disorders devise better choices for ways to behave.

Tiered Activities

Activities that are modified to meet the differentiated needs of learners.


Removing a student who is acting disruptively from the immediate vicinity of instruction for a specified period of time, or until she can return and behave appropriately.