Chapter 01

For each term below, first note how you would define the term. Then, click on the arrow to reveal the book’s definition.

Constructivist Model of Learning

A learning theory suggesting that students are active learners who organize and relate new information to their prior knowledge.


A process involving a complex set of ongoing activities that occur in the classroom.


The competence to carry out the complex reading and writing tasks in a functionally useful way necessary to the world of work and life outside the school.


The construction of meaning from coded messages through symbol decoding, vocabulary awareness, comprehension, and reflection.


A preexisting knowledge structure developed about a thing, a place, or an idea; a framework of expectations based on previous knowledge.

Transactional Model

A perspective of early reading instruction from cognitive psychology and psycholinguistic learning that views students as bringing a rich prior knowledge background to literacy learning.

Transmission Model

A perspective of early reading instruction from behavioral psychology that views children as empty vessels into which knowledge is poured.


The interpretation and analysis of visual media.

Visual Literacy

The ability to interpret the meaning of visual images as well as to construct effective visuals in order to convey ideas to others.

Visually Representing

The process of communicating through visual images such as photographs, drawings, video presentations, cartoons, and other image types.